Third Culture Kids – 3rd Edition – out now!

In this 3rd edition of the ground-breaking, global classic, Ruth E. Van Reken and Michael V. Pollock, son of the late original co-author, David C. Pollock have significantly updated what is widely recognized as The TCK Bible. Emphasis is on the modern TCK and addressing the impact of technology, cultural complexity, diversity & inclusion and transitions. Includes new advice for parents and others for how to support TCKs as they navigate work, relationships, social settings and their own personal development. Specific updates:

  • A second PolVan Cultural Identity diagram to support understanding of cultural identity
  • New models for identity formation
  • Updated explanation of unresolved grief
  • New material on ‘highly mobile communities’ addressing the needs of people who stay put while a community around them moves rapidly
  • Revamped Section III so readers can more easily find what is relevant to them as Adult TCKs, parents, counselors, employers, spouses, administrators, etc.
  • New “stages and needs” tool that will help families and organizations identify and meet needs
  • Greater emphasis on tools for educators as they grapple with demographic shifts in the classroom.

Available from Amazon

Dounia Bertuccelli in conversation with Summertime author, Ruth Van Reken

Letters Never SentFIGT had very humble beginnings in the Midwest USA. While trying to adjust to life in suburban Indiana after living overseas, Ruth realized that not enough help was being given to relocated families. Although relocation packages included nice benefits and practical information, they lacked support in other areas.

“Topics such as transition, TCKs or spousal matters were not covered,” she said. “There seemed little awareness or appreciation for the enormity of the emotional/ psychological/ social issues that they or their children faced.”

In the meantime, Norma McCaig had started Global Nomads and David Pollock was talking about TCKs to international schools and organizations. Ruth’s memoir, Letters Never Sent had been published and people had begun writing to her, sharing their own similar experiences.

“It was apparent that issues related to global family living were real out in the world but they seemed invisible where I was living in Indianapolis,” she recalled. Then one day while sitting at her kitchen table with three friends, discussing the book she was writing with David Pollock, they realized it would be great to spread this information to a wider audience.


Tips for Helping Your TCK Keep Their Culture Roots

Tips for Helping Your TCK Keep Their Home Culture Roots

Ruth Van Reken asserts, “The third culture kid builds relationships to all the cultures, while not having full ownership in any. Although elements from each are assimilated into the third culture kid’s life experience, the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of the same background, other TCK’s.”

Given that other TCK’s will be strongly influential how then can you best influence your child with your values and cultural roots? The following nine tips will help:

  1. What are the cultural roots that are important to you and why? Decide together. Research and ask family. Ask your child what cultural differences they notice for other international families.
  2. Prepare yourself and your child – read, ask questions, reflect.  Ask about their hopes and their concerns. Begin by reading Van Reken and Pollock’s seminal book Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds. If your teen reads it too, they will discover they are not alone. Use it to discuss potential feelings about cultural confusion, unresolved grief, struggles with maturity and identity, and adjusting to home country on return.

If you wish to have a catalyst for discussion with a younger child (age three to twelve), the unique book Slurping Soup and Other Confusions: true stories to help third culture kids during transition ( provides a voice for children via fun activities and true stories. It helps them explore: adapting to their new environment, belonging, home and family adjustment, cultural differences and friendship change.

  1. Listen to your child’s unique thoughts and feelings, positive or negative. A parent told me she tried to keep her children so happy all the time that she overlooked listening to their struggles. Another parent told me that she regretted always ‘fixing’ things for her child without listening. This also means understanding your child’s unique personality and learning style. Some children cope better than others with cultural change.
  2. Provide a safe loving haven in the midst of transitions. Spend positive time, so your relationship is strong and your child develops a healthy self-esteem.
  3. Problem-solve anticipated and current issues together for mutual understanding and creative solutions. Discuss peer influence and how they might deal with this. If your child is abroad what touchstones to their family culture would help them feel connected? If preparing for university read Tina Quick’s The Global Nomad’s Guide to University Transition.
  4. Be curious not critical of other cultures. Focus on the richness of different cultures and your own.
  5. Keep connected with teachers. Share your culture and your child’s adjustments.
  6. Use natural opportunities like these parents:
  • “We speak German at home and read him stories in German. He also plays with some other German kids.” 
  • “I try to take them to Chinese historical places and tell them the historical story. I try to connect nowadays living status with historical reason. Afterwards I try to find the history book relating to the places we visited. Also I try to let them spend time with their grandparents to feel the big family, and relationship with each other. They can understand the Chinese culture and value within the big family. Feed them delicious Chinese food as much as possible; they will miss the food culture when they grow up.”
  1. Listen, problem solve, share values respectfully – avoid the use of power and threats.

Cautionary tale from a parent: “My own mother always pushed my cultural identity as being Chinese, often to an extreme. Sometimes her comments were frightening, “You’re not Australian, just look in the mirror at your yellow face. If China attacked Australia today you would be the first one they would take because you’re just like them”, and often quite funny “You want to grow taller? If you get any taller you’ll have to marry a white boy” (which I did, incidentally).

With my own children, it makes it much easier living in China and having so many children of different cultures around us, especially the Eurasian kids that my children can identify with. When they ask where they’re from, I turn the question around and ask them, “Tell me where you feel you’re from”. The answer varies from time to time and I let them know that there’s no right answer. Hopefully I’m empowering my children to discover their own identity by themselves rather than forcing my own onto them”. 

When you listen, problem solve together, and share values respectfully, children will be more likely to respect your wisdom and experience in selecting their own values. Your child’s international experience will bring self-awareness, resilience, intercultural adaptability and a global mindset that embraces your family culture that is meaningful for them.

Slurping SoupKathryn Tonges is co-author of ‘Slurping Soup and Other Confusions: true stories and activities to help third culture kids during transition’.

She has conducted parenting courses for 37 years and is a National Trainer for Effectiveness Training Institute of Australia Ltd and State Executive Officer for ETIA Queensland. Kathryn writes for her website  The Parent Within and has written blogs for Beijing Kids and Jing Magazines as well as Teach Starter.  She is a parenting & life coach and has recently become a grandparent.

Her passion is helping parents to build more peaceful, loving relationships through improving their communication skills.

Ruth E Van Reken & David C Pollock, Third Culture Kids

The latest edition of “Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds” (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2009) by Ruth E Van Reken & David C Pollock shows how the TCK experience is becoming increasingly common and valuable.

Nearly a decade ago, Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds introduced the concept of and has been the authority on the experiences of “TCKs” – children who grow up or spend a significant part of their childhood living abroad. Early on, TCKs were identified as the rototype “citizen of the future.” That future is now, as more and more children are growing up among worlds, creating a culturally rich and diverse world. Rich with real-life anecdotes, Third Culture Kids, Revised Edition examines the nature of the TCK experience and its effect on maturing, developing a sense of identity and adjusting to one’s “passport country” upon return. For many third culture kids, this book will be their first opportunity to discover that they share a common heritage with countless others around the world. This expanded edition profiles the personal challenges that TCKs experience, from feelings of rootlessness and unresolved grief to struggles with maturity and identity. Highlighting dramatic changes brought about by instant communication and new mobility patterns, the new edition shows how the TCK experience is becoming increasingly common and valuable. The authors also expand the coverage to include “cross-cultural kids,” children of biracial or bicultural parents, immigrants and international adoptees – all of this bringing hidden diversity to our world and challenging our old notions of identity and “home.”


Ruth Van Reken is a second generation Third Culture Kid* (TCK) and mother of three now adult TCKs and co-author of Third Culture Kids:  Growing Up Among Worlds, rev. ed. (Nicholas Brealey) with David C. Pollock. She is also the author of Letters Never Sent, one of the first books written by an adult TCK examining the impact of his or her cross-cultural childhood. For the last twenty five years, Ruth has traveled extensively to over forty-five countries working with fellow adult TCKs, parents of TCKs, human resource people, educators, and other caregivers, about issues related to global family living.  Currently, Ruth is researching how lessons learned in this TCK context may also apply to other types of cross-cultural childhoods. Ruth is co-founder and past chairperson of the annual Families in Global Transition conference. In addition to her two books and various other articles, she was written  a chapter in Strangers at Home (Aletheia Publications), Unrooted Childhoods (Nicholas Brealey/Intercultural Press), and an upcoming book,  Writing Out of Limbo (Cambridge Scholars Publications).

*a child who spends a significant period of time during his or her developmental years growing up in a culture outside the parents’ culture.

David C. Pollock  is one of the first people to make those who grew up globally to realize they had a name and common connection with others. After living near an international school in Kenya during the 1970’s, Dave realized he was hearing many common themes from the expat children attending that school. He returned to the US and founded Interaction, International to try to be a resource for all organizations who were sending families overseas, hoping to help them deal more effectively with the challenges their children faced so they could use the gifts as well. For many years, Dave circled the globe tirelessly to spread the word of the TCK profile he had developed and the impact of transition on families. Sadly, in April, 2004, he collapsed during once such event in Vienna, Austria and died 9 days later on Easter Sunday.